MALE BIOIDENTICAL HORMONE REPLACEMENT

Male Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy (BHRT) involves the use of hormones that are structurally identical to the hormones naturally produced by a man’s body. Natural Hormones are essential to healthy, vigorous and more youthful bodily function.

This treatment is available at Aesthetics Concierge of Texas, here you will find everything you need to know about male BHRT.

BIO-IDENTICAL HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERPY AT AESTHETICS CONCIERGE OF TEXAS

 

What is included in the treatment package:

✅ Consultation with one of our experts for personalized discussion

✅ Lab work to understand the intricacies of your unique needs, paving the way for a tailored hormone replacement plan

✅ Follow up consultation for comprehensing monitoring

🚨 Superbill for insurance submission 🚨

LEARN MORE ABOUT  MALE BIOIDENTICALE HORMONE THERAPY

HORMONES AND LIBIDO WITH DR. JIM HRNCIR

In this video Dr. Jim Hrncir discusses BHRT and libido.  Dr. Jim Hrncir works in collaboration with the Board Certified Nurse Practitioners at Aesthetics Concierge of Texas.

WHAT IS MALE BIOIDENTICAL HORMONE REPLACEMENT?

Male Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement is a personalized approach to hormone therapy designed to restore hormonal balance in men. Bio-identical hormones are natural hormones that are essential to healthy, vigorous and more youthful bodily function. 

For optimal wellness, men must maintain a proper balance of the natural hormones:

  • Testosterone
  • Estrogens
  • DHEA
  • Pregnenolone
  • Cortisol
  • Thyroid

Natural hormones are derived from plant sources, usually soy or yam, and then modified to become chemically identical to human hormones. Because they are exactly what the human body produces, we refer to these hormones as biologically identical or “Bio-Identical” for short. These “prescription-only” hormones are then used to replace missing or depleted levels in the body.

“Bio-identical” hormones, naturally occurring in the human body, cannot be patented by drug companies and are therefore largely supplied by compounding pharmacies.

This therapy aims to address hormonal imbalances that may occur due to aging, stress, or other factors.

READY TO BOOK AN APPOINTMENT?

Click on the link below to book an appointment with our Board Certified Nurse Practitioners.

TYPES OF MALE HORMONE THERAPIES

Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT): Testosterone Replacement Therapy, or TRT, is a medical intervention designed to address low testosterone levels in individuals. Testosterone, a crucial hormone for various bodily functions, can decline with age or due to other factors. TRT involves the administration of synthetic or bio-identical testosterone to restore levels, potentially improving energy, libido, muscle mass, and overall well-being. The treatment is personalized based on individual needs and is closely monitored by healthcare professionals.

DHEA Supplementation

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. DHEA supplementation involves taking DHEA in the form of a supplement to address potential deficiencies. DHEA is a precursor to both testosterone and estrogen, and its supplementation may contribute to hormonal balance. It is often considered in personalized hormone plans to support overall health, vitality, and well-being.

Thyroid Hormone Replacement

The thyroid gland plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, energy production, and overall body function. Thyroid hormone supplementation, such as levothyroxine or desiccated thyroid, may be prescribed to individuals with an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). This intervention aims to optimize thyroid hormone levels, addressing symptoms like fatigue, weight gain, and cold intolerance.

Individualized Hormone Plans

Individualized hormone plans are personalized treatment approaches that consider a person’s unique hormonal profile, health goals, and symptoms. These plans may include a combination of interventions, such as hormone replacement therapies, lifestyle modifications, and nutritional support. Healthcare providers tailor these plans to address specific imbalances, ensuring a comprehensive and personalized approach to hormonal health.

Remember, the implementation of these interventions should be under the guidance of qualified healthcare professionals. Individual responses to these therapies can vary, and a thorough assessment is crucial for creating effective and safe hormone plans.

Male Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement offers a personalized and holistic approach to hormonal health, aiming to optimize overall wellness and mitigate the effects of hormonal imbalances.

TESTOSTERONE: BEST MALE BIOIDENTICAL HORMONE

TESTOSTERONE BENEFITS

Tesosterone helps men live longer with better quality of life

Reduces risk of heart attack, stroke, prostate cancer, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dementia, moodiness/depression, erectile dysfunction, inflammation

Refer to clinical studies and data section

Symptoms of Low Testosterone (LOW T)

Low testosterone levels, commonly referred to as Low T, can have a range of physical, emotional, and mental consequences for men. These consequences may manifest gradually and impact various aspects of daily life. Here’s a brief overview:

 

Flabbiness or loss of muscle mass

Loss of muscular strength and endurance

Lack of energy and stamina

Decreased sex drive

Loss of motivation and drive

Decreased armpit, pubic, and body hair

Gynecomastia (man breasts)

Erectile dysfunction

Moody or depressed

Cholesterol elevation

Impaired memory and concentration

Indecisiveness

Increased body fat

Loss of coordination and balance

Sleep disturbances or insomnia

Factors That Decrease Testosterone Levels

Understanding the following factors is crucial for identifying potential contributors to low testosterone levels. If individuals experience symptoms of low testosterone, consulting with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and guidance is recommended.

Chronic emotional or physical stress (hypothalamus/pituitary down-regulation)

Aging

High glycemic diet, excess body fat

Prior use/abuse of steroids (shuts down HPG axis)

Increased SHBG (binds testosterone so that it is not bio-available)

Intense physical activity (over-training)

Zinc deficiency, low Vitamin D

Elevated Prolactin (pituitary adenoma)

Traumatic Brain Injury

Medications can lower T levels

Statins

Anti-hypertensives (beta blockers)

SSRI (Prozac)

Corticosteroids (prednisone)

Chronic opiate use (chemically castrates men by suppressing HPG axis)

ALL ABOUT THE THYROID

T4 is the precursor thyroid hormone; HPT axis feedback from T4 levels (increased TSH when low).

T3 is the active thyroid hormone.

Symptoms of low thyroid

Fatigue

Weight gain

Loss of out half of eyebrows and unexpected scalp hair loss

Body temperature below 98.2

Cold hands and feet, intolerance to cold

Dry skin, week or ridged nails

Decreased memory and concentration

Puffy eyes and swollen eyelids

Low blood pressure

Depressed mood

Muscle weakness

Headache

Fluid retention

Symptoms of high thyroid

Tachycardia

Heart palpitations

Nervousness/anxiety

Insomnia

Weight loss

Subclinical hypothyroidism

  • Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a 260% increase in the prevalence of heart disease, atherosclerosis, low metabolism, weight gain, increased auto immune diseases, more inflammatory and chronic pain, increased glandular cancers and cancer mortality

Reverse T-3:

  • Competitor for thyroid binding sites, blocks actions of T-3, commonly observed in patients with hashimotio’s, chronic stress, severe caloric restriction, iron deficiency, chronic illness 
  • Can consider selenium for reduced conversion of T4 to reverse T3 (***ONLY 200 mcg/day)

Iodine and the Thyroid gland:

Supplements helpful to consider for thyroid health:

Why do we prescribe Desiccated Thyroid vs. Synthroid/Levothryroxine

Synthroid is a brand name for levothyroxine, a synthetic (man-made) form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, or T4. NP Thyroid, Armour Thyroid, and W.P Thyroid are  brand names for a natural form of thyroid hormone. It is made from the dried thyroid glands of pigs. More than 15% of hypothyroid patients with a normal TSH on Levothyroxine feel hypothyroid. This happens less with patients on desiccated thyroid.

In studies comparing desiccated thyroid with Levothyroxine,  patients on desiccated thyroid preferred desiccated thyroid over Levothyroxine.

Levothyroxine contains only T4, while T3 is the active hormone. The body makes 85% T4 and 15% T3. Conventional approaches hope the body goes into over-drive to convert the T4 to T3, but in many patients that doesn’t happen.

Rules when you have your labs drawn:

In AM, fasting

If receiving transdermal, do not apply hormones with hand or to arm of blood draw for 3 days prior to lab draw

Transdermal: draw 24 h after last application

Sub-Q: draw AM of day 3-4 (before next injection)

No Biotin for more than 3 days prior to draw

NO AM meds until after lab draw (including thyroid medication …wait to take all meds until after draw)

BENEFITS OF MALE HORMONES

Increased Energy and Stamina: Optimization of testosterone levels can contribute to improved energy levels, stamina, and overall vitality.

 

Enhanced Muscle Mass and Strength: Testosterone plays a crucial role in supporting muscle development and maintaining lean body mass.

 

Improved Mood and Mental Clarity: Hormonal balance, especially with testosterone, is linked to mood regulation and cognitive function.

 

Better Sleep Quality: Hormonal balance can positively impact sleep patterns, leading to improved sleep quality.

 

Libido and Sexual Function: Restoring testosterone levels can enhance libido, sexual function, and overall sexual well-being.

OUR PARTNERSHIP WITH LAS COLINAS PHARMACY FOR EXCEPTIONAL CARE AND PERSONALIZED MEDICATIONS

Aesthetics Concierge of Texas is a partner of Las Colinas Pharmacy. After the consultation takes place, we send your prescription to Las Colinas Pharmacy and they will ship you the medication within one week.

Established in 1984, Las Colinas Pharmacy is recognized for providing the highest level of service, whether dispensing traditional prescription drugs or personalized, compounded medications.

 One of the original pioneers in pharmacy compounding, Las Colinas Pharmacy sustains cutting edge knowledge, technology and quality control procedures. LCP is proud to claim accreditation by PCAB (Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board).

 LCP’s  pharmacist founder, Jim Hrncir, received national attention when he appeared on several episodes of the Dr. Phil Show.  Jim worked with Dr. Phil’s wife, Robin McGraw to achieve hormone balance. He is also featured in her book, What’s Age Got to Do with It?: Living Your Healthiest and Happiest Life. Hrncir says experts in the field refer to a large number of studies which suggest the balanced use of natural hormones help patients feel better and possibly lower the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and cancer.

At Aesthetics Concierge of Texas, we partner with Las Colinas Pharmacy to deliver exceptional care and quality prescriptions. 

MALE BIOIDENTICAL HORMONE REPLACEMENT FAQ

In this FAQ section, we will answer some common questions about Male BioIdentical Hormone replacement. Whether you’re considering this treatment or just curious about the procedure, this section will provide you with valuable information to help you make an informed decision.

Please reach us at aestheticsconciergeoftexas@gmail.com if you cannot find an answer to your question.

 

What is the purpose of Male Bio-Identical Hormone Therapy (BHRT)?

BHRT for men is designed to address symptoms of hormonal imbalance, such as fatigue, decreased libido, and mood swings. It aims to optimize hormone levels using compounds that mimic the molecular structure of hormones naturally produced in the male body.

Who is a suitable candidate for Male BHRT?

Men experiencing symptoms related to age-related hormonal changes, such as low testosterone levels, may be suitable candidates for BHRT. Consulting with a healthcare provider is crucial to assess individual health status and determine eligibility.

Which hormones are typically addressed in Male BHRT?

Male BHRT commonly focuses on optimizing testosterone levels, but it may also involve addressing imbalances in other hormones such as DHEA and thyroid hormones. These hormones play key roles in energy levels, libido, and overall well-being.

What are the potential benefits of Male BHRT?

BHRT for men aims to alleviate symptoms associated with hormonal imbalances, including increased energy, improved mood, enhanced libido, and better muscle mass maintenance. It may contribute to overall vitality and well-being.

How is Male BHRT administered, and are there different options?

BHRT for men can be administered through various methods, including injections, creams, gels, or pellets. The choice of administration method depends on individual preferences, lifestyle, and treatment goals. A healthcare provider will discuss these options during the consultation.

References and publications:

1) Gould DC, et al, Testosterone replacement therapy for late onset hypogonadism: what is the risk ofinducing prostate cancer? 16 Studies. Prost Canc Prostatic Dis 2006;9(1):14-8

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16264770/

2) Haider A, Zitzmann M, Doros G, Isbarn H, Hammerer P, Yassin A. “Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Hypogonadal Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy: Observations from 5-Year Median Follow-up of 3 Registries.” J Urol. 2014 Jun 26. pii: S0022-5347(14)03885-3.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995465/

 

3) Roddam AW et al, Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a collaborative analysis of 18 prospective studies. J Nat Cancer Inst 2008 100:170-183

Agwaral PK et al, Testosterone replacement therapy after primary treatment for prostate cancer. J Urol 2005 Feb;173(2):533-6

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18230794/

4) Heart Disease

Baillargeon J et al, Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Older Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy

July,2014 Annals of Pharmacotherapy 25,000 men

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24989174/

4) Sharma, Oni, Chen et al, “Normalization of testosterone level is associated with reduced

incidence of myocardial infarction and mortality in men” Eur HeartJ 2015 Aug 6,pii:ehv 346

83,000 men

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26248567/

5) Muller M et al, Endogenous sex hormones and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly

men. Circulation 2004 May 4;109(17):2074-9 (higher T, less risk atherosclerosis)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15096452/

6) Turhan S et al, The association between androgen levels and premature coronary artery disease

in men. Cor Arter Dis 2007 May;18(3)159-162 (low T = 3x increase risk of premature CVD)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17429287/

7) Khaw,KT et al, Endogenous testosterone and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and

cancer in men Circulation 2007;116:2694-2701 (higher T, less mortality- CVD/cancer)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18040028/

8) Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men. E. Charles Osterberg, Aaron M. Bernie, and Ranjith

Ramasamy, Department of Urology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Indian Journal of Urol 2014 Jan-Mar’ 30(1): 2-7

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897047/

9) The majority of reports of liver toxicity and jaundice are limited to orally-administered alkylated forms of testosterone.

Svartberg J. Epidemiology: testosterone and the metabolic syndrome Int J Impot Res 2006 July

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16858366/

10) Boyanov MA et al, Testosterone supplementation in men with type 2 diabetes, visceral obesity and

partial androgen deficiency. Aging Male 2003/6(1)/1-7. 17% reduction in A1c and Insulin resisitance

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12809074/

11) Moffat SD et al, Long-term measures of free testosterone predict regional cerebral blood flow patterns

in elderly men Neurobiol Aging 2006 May 11 (less cognitive decline)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16698125/

12) Mood and depression

Am J of Psychiatry 2003; Jan:160(1)103-111, & 157;1884, Nov 2000

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12522017/

13) J Geriat Psychiat Neurology 2000 Summer;12(2) 93-101

Cooper MA, Testosterone Replacement Therapy For Anxiety Am J Phychiatry 157:1884,

November 2000

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11058497/

14) Brain Protection from Progesterone

Horm Behav. 2013;63(2):284-290.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3467329/

15) Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2013; 34:1485-1490.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854945/

16) KEEP (Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention) Trial   po CEE + po prometrium vs. transdermal E2 + po progesterone in recently menopausal women, 662 women entered into the cognitive and mood portion of KEEPS, CEE but not patch increased HDL levels, CEE increased TG, Transdermal had no effect on HDL or TG, Significant improvement in depression, anxiety, tension

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738629/

17) BHOT (Bio-identical Hormones On Trial)   Univ. of Texas   Comparison of patterns of administration and dosing of compounded bio-identical hormone therapy Women (n = 296) receiving BHRT at texas. Mean age of 52 (9) years. The BHRT dosage forms utilized were topical (71%) and oral (43%). Compounded BHRT regimens were generally initiated at low doses (<0.5mg E, <50mg Prog) regardless of route. Women experienced a 25% decrease in emotional lability, 25% decrease in irritability, and a 22% reduction in anxiety within 3 to 6 months. These women also experienced a 14% reduction in night sweats and a 6% reduction in hot flashes.

18) Nurses Study 67% increased risk for CEE + MPA, 23% increased risk for E alone

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2764865/

19) Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, et al. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003;289(24):3243-3253

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12824205/

20) Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O, et al. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women using estradiol-progestogen therapy.

Obstetrics & Gynecology 2009;113(1):65-73

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19104361/

21) Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, et al. The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1995;332(24):1589-1593

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7753136/

22) Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Wan PC, Pike MC. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: estrogen versus

estrogen plus progestin. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92(4):328-332

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10675382/

23) Fournier A, Berrino F, Riboli E, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy in the E3NEPIC cohort. Int J Cancer 2005;114:448-545

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15551359/

24) Wood CE, Register TC, Lees CJ, et al. Effects of estradiol with micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on risk markers for breast cancer in postmenopausal monkeys. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007;101(2):125-134

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16841178/

25) Peck JD, Hulka BS, Poole C, et al. Steroid hormone levels during pregnancy and incidence of maternal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11927496/

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References and publications:

Gould DC, et al, Testosterone replacement therapy for late onset hypogonadism: what is the risk ofinducing prostate cancer? 16 Studies. Prost Canc Prostatic Dis 2006;9(1):14-8

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16264770/

Haider A, Zitzmann M, Doros G, Isbarn H, Hammerer P, Yassin A. “Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Hypogonadal Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy: Observations from 5-Year Median Follow-up of 3 Registries.” J Urol. 2014 Jun 26. pii: S0022-5347(14)03885-3.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995465/

 

Roddam AW et al, Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer: a collaborative analysis of 18 prospective studies. J Nat Cancer Inst 2008 100:170-183

Agwaral PK et al, Testosterone replacement therapy after primary treatment for prostate cancer. J Urol 2005 Feb;173(2):533-6

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18230794/

Heart Disease

Baillargeon J et al, Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Older Men Receiving Testosterone Therapy

July,2014 Annals of Pharmacotherapy 25,000 men

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24989174/

Sharma, Oni, Chen et al, “Normalization of testosterone level is associated with reduced

incidence of myocardial infarction and mortality in men” Eur HeartJ 2015 Aug 6,pii:ehv 346

83,000 men

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26248567/

Muller M et al, Endogenous sex hormones and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly

men. Circulation 2004 May 4;109(17):2074-9 (higher T, less risk atherosclerosis)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15096452/

Turhan S et al, The association between androgen levels and premature coronary artery disease

in men. Cor Arter Dis 2007 May;18(3)159-162 (low T = 3x increase risk of premature CVD)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17429287/

Khaw,KT et al, Endogenous testosterone and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and

cancer in men Circulation 2007;116:2694-2701 (higher T, less mortality- CVD/cancer)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18040028/

Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men. E. Charles Osterberg, Aaron M. Bernie, and Ranjith

Ramasamy, Department of Urology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Indian Journal of Urol 2014 Jan-Mar’ 30(1): 2-7

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897047/

The majority of reports of liver toxicity and jaundice are limited to orally-administered alkylated forms of testosterone.

Svartberg J. Epidemiology: testosterone and the metabolic syndrome Int J Impot Res 2006 July

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16858366/

Boyanov MA et al, Testosterone supplementation in men with type 2 diabetes, visceral obesity and

partial androgen deficiency. Aging Male 2003/6(1)/1-7. 17% reduction in A1c and Insulin resisitance

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12809074/

Moffat SD et al, Long-term measures of free testosterone predict regional cerebral blood flow patterns

in elderly men Neurobiol Aging 2006 May 11 (less cognitive decline)

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16698125/

Mood and depression

Am J of Psychiatry 2003; Jan:160(1)103-111, & 157;1884, Nov 2000

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12522017/

J Geriat Psychiat Neurology 2000 Summer;12(2) 93-101

Cooper MA, Testosterone Replacement Therapy For Anxiety Am J Phychiatry 157:1884,

November 2000

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11058497/

Brain Protection from Progesterone

Horm Behav. 2013;63(2):284-290.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3467329/

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2013; 34:1485-1490.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854945/

KEEP (Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention) Trial   po CEE + po prometrium vs. transdermal E2 + po progesterone in recently menopausal women, 662 women entered into the cognitive and mood portion of KEEPS, CEE but not patch increased HDL levels, CEE increased TG, Transdermal had no effect on HDL or TG, Significant improvement in depression, anxiety, tension

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738629/

BHOT (Bio-identical Hormones On Trial)   Univ. of Texas   Comparison of patterns of administration and dosing of compounded bio-identical hormone therapy Women (n = 296) receiving BHRT at texas. Mean age of 52 (9) years. The BHRT dosage forms utilized were topical (71%) and oral (43%). Compounded BHRT regimens were generally initiated at low doses (<0.5mg E, <50mg Prog) regardless of route. Women experienced a 25% decrease in emotional lability, 25% decrease in irritability, and a 22% reduction in anxiety within 3 to 6 months. These women also experienced a 14% reduction in night sweats and a 6% reduction in hot flashes.

Nurses Study 67% increased risk for CEE + MPA, 23% increased risk for E alone

Chlebowski RT, Hendrix SL, Langer RD, et al. Influence of estrogen plus progestin on breast cancer and mammography in healthy postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003;289(24):3243-3253

Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O, et al. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women using estradiol-progestogen therapy.

Obstetrics & Gynecology 2009;113(1):65-73

Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, et al. The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1995;332(24):1589-1593

Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Wan PC, Pike MC. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: estrogen versus

estrogen plus progestin. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92(4):328-332

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10675382/

Fournier A, Berrino F, Riboli E, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to different types of hormone replacement therapy in the E3NEPIC cohort. Int J Cancer 2005;114:448-545

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15551359/

Wood CE, Register TC, Lees CJ, et al. Effects of estradiol with micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on risk markers for breast cancer in postmenopausal monkeys. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007;101(2):125-134

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16841178/

Peck JD, Hulka BS, Poole C, et al. Steroid hormone levels during pregnancy and incidence of maternal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11927496/

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